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Statistical Analysis

Regression model:

 

Investigation of possible relationship between 2 variables:

 

Examples:

Is there any relationship between smoking Cigarette and Cancer?

Is there any relationship between Environmental factors and Cancer

Is there any relationship between Genetic factors and Cancer

Is there any relationship between X and Y

 

Is there any relationship between Adverting Expenditure and Sales

Is there any relationship between Price and Sales

Is there any relationship between Quality and Sales

Is there any relationship between Location and Sales

 

Is there any relationship between X and Y

 

Investigation of possible relationship between 2 variables:

  • Tabular Methods
  • Graphical Methods
  • Numerical Methods

 

  • Tabular Methods

The use of the Cross Tabs allows us to make a comment on the possible relationship between X and Y.

 

  • Graphical Methods

The use of the scatter Plotallows us to make a comment on the possible relationship between X and Y:

X and Y appear to be:

  • Not related
  • Related in a non-linear fashion (Polynomial, Exponential, Log etc.)
  • Related in a linear fashion :
  • Is it a direct linear relationship?
  • Is it an indirect linear relationship?

 

  • Numerical Methods

Regression and correlation analysis will be used to make a comment on the possible relationship between X and Y. The main idea is to:

  • Calculate and interpret the intercept (b0) and the slope (b1).
  • Calculationand interpret the Coefficient of Determination(r2).
  • Calculate and interpret the Correlation Coefficient (r).
  • Test the significance of relationship (from sample to Population).
  • Conduct forecasting.

 

 

 

Steps in Regression Analysis:

  • Step 1- Model Building – Purpose is to establish a Cause and effect relationship between the Dependent (Y) and The Independent variables ( X1, X2,,….. )

Y = f (X1, X2, X3, X4,…….)Multivariate Model

 

  • Step 2- Specification Step– Purpose is to simplify the model as a “Simple” “Linear” model.

 

Number of Independent variables:

  • Simple model ( only ONE independent variable)

        Y = f (X)Simple Model

 

  • Multivariate model ( More than ONE independent variable)

Y = f (X1, X2, X3, X4,…….)

Type of Functional relationship:

  • Linear relationship

Y = b0 + b1X

 

 

Intercept (b0): At X = 0, the Y is EXPECTED (or estimated) to be b0

 

Slope (b1): For every additional unit increase in X, Y is estimated to increase (decrease if negative) by b1

 

 

  • Non-linear relationship i.e. Exponential, Cubic, Log etc

 

Y = b0 + b1X2

Y = b0 + b1X1/3* X1/2

 

 

 

 

  • Step 3- Data collection step
  • Time series Data (Historical Data)- Collecting data across different Time Periods.
Elements Variable 1 Variable 2
Time X Y
2008    
2009    
2010    
2011    
2012    

 

 

 

Elements Variable 1 Variable 2
Time X Y
January    
February    
March    
April    
May    

 

 

  • Cross- Sectional Data – Collecting data across different observations (elements)
Elements Variable 1 Variable 2
Countries X Y
Afghanistan

 

   
     
     
     
Zimbabwe    

 

Elements Variable 1 Variable 2
Companies X Y
 IMB    
Google    
Microsoft    
     
     

 

 

 

 

 

  • Step 4- Visualization Step – Purpose is to visualize (see) the pattern. Does it appear to be any type of relationship? Is the relationship non-linear? If linear, does it appear to be a direct (positive) or an Indirect (Negative) relationship?

 

 

  • Step 5- Estimation Step– Purpose is to estimate (and Interpret) the Intercept and the slope.

 

Step 6- Forecasting – Purpose is to use the pattern to conduct forecasting.

 

 

 

Chapter 12 Regression and Correlation Analysis

 

  1. Develop the scatter diagram for the data set. Comment on the possible relationship between X and Y.
  2. Calculate the intercept(b0) and the slope(b1).Interpretyour findings.
  3. For a given level of X, forecast the
  4. Calculation the Coefficient of Determination and Interpret
  5. Calculate the Correlation Coefficient (r) and Interpret.

 

  True Values Estimated Values
  All Some
  Population Parameter Sample Statistics
Average μ X- Bar
Standard Deviation σ S
Proportion (%) π P- Bar
Intercept β0 b0
Slope β1 b1
Correlation Coefficient ρ r

 

Part1. Comment on the possible relationship between X and Y

Make a comment about the following:

 

The use of the scatter Plot allows us to make a comment on the possible relationship between X and Y:

X and Y appear to be:

  • Not related
  • Related in a non-linear fashion (Polynomial, Exponential, Log etc.)
  • Related in a linear fashion :
  1. Is it a direct linear relationship?
  2. Is it an indirect linear relationship?

 

Do you see any pattern? What does the pattern look like? Does it appear to be a linear or a non-linear relationship? If linear, does it appear to be “direct” or “indirect” linear relationship?

 

It appears that there is a directlinear relationship between “# of TV ads” and “# of cars sold”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part 2– Interpretations of the intercept (b0) and the slope (b1):

 

Y^ = b0 + b1X

 

 

Intercept (b0): At X = 0, the Y is EXPECTED (or estimated) to be b0

Slope (b1): For every additional unit increase in X, Y is estimated to increase (decrease if negative) by b1

 

 

Y^ = 10+ 5X

 

If we run NO TV ads “# of cars sold” is expected to be 10 cars.

For every additional TV ads,“# of cars sold” is expected to increase by 5 cars.

 

 

 

 

 

Part 3– For a given level of X, forecast the Y.

 

Y^ = b0 + b1X

 

In a typical case (homework), the value of X will be provided. Simply insert the given value of X in the above equation and finish the calculation.

 

Y^ = 10+ 5(5) = 35

 

If we run 5 TV ads, “# of cars sold” is expected to be 35.

 

Part 4. Coefficient of Determination(r2)

 

Calculation the Coefficient of Determination and Interpret it.

The Coefficient of Determination (r2 ) is a measure of the goodness of fit of a linear model to observed data. The value of the (r2 ) is always expressed as a percentage and it varies between 0 =<r2 =< 1.00

Overall, the larger the r2, the better the fit.

 

For a complete interpretation, make the following three comments about r2:

  • Comment on the goodness of fit. (Tip: If r2> .65 it is a good fit, if r2>0.80 it is an excellent fit).

Example: For a sample of …. randomly selected ……, the linear model provides a …(good, excellent etc)…. fit.

  • What % of variations in Y^ is EXPLIAINED by the variations in X. (the main factor).
  • What % of variations in Y^ is EXPLIAINED by the variations in other influencing factors. 1-r2

 

  • For a sample of 5 randomly selected time period, the linear model provide an excellent fit to the observed date.
  • 72% of variations in “# of cars sold” is explained by “# of TV ads”.
  • 28% of variations in “# of cars sold” is explained by other influencing factors i.e. Management, Price …

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part 5.Correlation Coefficient

 

The Correlation Coefficient (r) is a measure of the strength as well as the direction of a linear model to observed data. The value of the (r) is always expressed as a percentage and it varies between  -1.00 =<r =< 1.00

 

Overall, the larger the r, the stronger the relationship

 

Tips regarding theDIRECTION of the linearrelationship:

If the sign of the “r” is positive, then use the adjective of “Direct”. If the sign of the “r” is negative use the adjective of “Indirect

 

Tips regarding theSTRENGHT of linear relationship:

Disregard the sign, if the absolute value of “r” is within the following ranges, then use the suggested adjectives to interpret your findings:

r >0.70 Strong
r >0.85 Extremely Strong
r <0.30 Weak
r <0.15 Extremely Weak
0.40< r < 0.60 Medium
0.60< r < 0.70 Semi-strong
0.30< r < 0.40 Semi-weak

 

For a sample of 5 randomly selected time period, there is direct extremely strong linear relationship between “#of cars sold” and “# of TV ads”.

Regression model:

Purpose: In simple linear regression, a model will be used to describe the relationship between a single dependent variable y and a single (or multiple) independent variable(s) x.

Model Building:Either a simple or multiple regression modelsare initially posed as a hypothesis concerning the relationship among the dependent and independent variables.

Example: As an illustration of regression analysis and the least squares method, suppose a university medical centre is investigating the relationship between stress and blood pressure. Assume that both a stress test score and a blood pressure reading have been recorded for a sample of 20 patients. The data are shown graphically in the figure below, called a scatter diagram. Values of the independent variable, stress test score, are given on the horizontal axis, and values of the dependent variable, blood pressure, are shown on the vertical axis. The line passing through the data points is the graph of the estimated regression equation: y = 42.3 + 0.49x. The parameter estimates, b0 = 42.3 and b1 = 0.49, were obtained using the least squares method.

Correlation:
Correlation and regression analysis are related in the sense that both deal with relationships among variables. The correlation coefficient is a measure of linear association between two variables. Values of the correlation coefficient are always between -1 and +1.

A correlation coefficient of +1 indicates that two variables are perfectly related in a positive linear sense, a correlation coefficient of -1 indicates that two variables are perfectly related in a negative linear sense, and a correlation coefficient of 0 indicates that there is no linear relationship between the two variables.

Neither regression nor correlation analyses can be interpreted as establishing cause-and-effect relationships. They can indicate only how or to what extent variables are associated with each other. The correlation coefficient measures only the degree of linear association between two variables. Any conclusions about a cause-and-effect relationship must be based on the judgment of the analyst.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Application of the Simple Linear Regression

Example 1:  Simple regression line

Reed Auto periodically has a special week-long sale.  As part of the advertising campaign Reed runs one or more television commercials during the weekend preceding the sale.

Data from a sample of 5 previous sales are shown on the right.

X Y
# of TV Ads # of cars sold
1 14
3 24
2 18
1 17
3 27

 

Y^ = b0 +  b1 X     Estimated Regression Equation

 

  • Slope for the Estimated Regression Equation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

y-Intercept for the Estimated Regression Equation

 

 

 

 

 

 

Let’s forecast the # of auto sales if we run “5” TV ads.

 

Estimated Regression Equation

Y^ = b0 +  b1 X

 

 

Example:  Relationship between Total Cost and Production Volume

 

Below is the monthly data which depicts the relationship between Total Cost and Production Volume for the last 6 month.

#21 X Y
Observatios Production Volume Total Cost
Jan. 400 $4,000
Feb. 450 $5,000
March 550 $5,400
April 600 $5,900
May 700 $6,400
June 750 $7,000

 

 

Let’s answer the following questions:

 

 

  1. Develop the scatter diagram for the data set. Comment on the possible relationship between X and Y.
  2. Calculate the intercept (b0) and the slope (b1). Interpret your findings.
  3. Test of ( b1 ). Conduct a test of the significance of linear relationship between X and Y. Interpret your findings.
  4. Calculation the Coefficient of Determination and Interpret
  5. Calculate the Correlation Coefficient (r) and Interpret.
  6. Test of ( r ). Conduct a test of the significance of the Strength of linear relationship. Interpret your findings.
  7. For a given level of X, forecast the

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I need to write a proposal on a reasonable topic, for an excel class.. Download Attachments: BITS211 Starter File(2) (1).xlsx The point of the proposal.docx

I need to write a proposal on a reasonable topic, for an excel class..

 

Operations Management

I have a project I am going to load in Operations Management. It has an individual portion as well as a group portion. Can a tutor who is efficient and knowledgeable in the subject help me with step-by-step solutions?

 

Download Attachment:
Project-1.docx

1 Direction: Each question must be 200-250 word count. References and citation must be cited and/or included. No plagiarism. Please use your own words Q1) The 10 trends chart developed by Becker and Freeman shows a discrepancy in the top few trends in terms on their perceived overall importance and the effect on the manager’s own firm. Is this discrepancy acceptable? Why or why not? How might continual transformation of management styles influence the effects of these trends? Why? Q2) What is the most significant information you will take away from The Blue Ocean Strategy?

1

Direction: Each question must be 200-250 word count. References and citation must be cited and/or included. No plagiarism.  Please use your own words

Q1) The 10 trends chart developed by Becker and Freeman shows a discrepancy in the top few trends in terms on their perceived overall importance and the effect on the manager’s own firm. Is this discrepancy acceptable? Why or why not? How might continual transformation of management styles influence the effects of these trends? Why?

Q2) What is the most significant information you will take away from The Blue Ocean Strategy?

Part 1: Based on a project you are familiar with (past or present) please create a stakeholder management strategy using Table 10-1 as a guide. Identify at least three specific stakeholders involved in the project and specify what strategies you should use make the project successful. The stakeholders you identify should represent different interests or backgrounds. Part 2: In one paragraph, briefly describe an IT project you would like to be involved with, including the location and scope of the project. Next, outline the steps you would take to develop a communication plan for the project. There is no right answer, however, please draw upon the communication best practices mentioned in the text to outline the steps you would follow. Part 2 should be no more than two pages in length.

Part 1: Based on a project you are familiar with (past or present) please create a stakeholder management strategy using Table 10-1 as a guide. Identify at least three specific stakeholders involved in the project and specify what strategies you should use make the project successful. The stakeholders you identify should represent different interests or backgrounds. Part 2: In one paragraph, briefly describe an IT project you would like to be involved with, including the location and scope of the project. Next, outline the steps you would take to develop a communication plan for the project. There is no right answer, however, please draw upon the communication best practices mentioned in the text to outline the steps you would follow. Part 2 should be no more than two pages in length.

Name:

Tutor:

Course:

Date:

In this story, John Updike attempts to show the different stages of life in which people in different age groups tend to live. He puts up this concept through the speaker who sat at the second checkout with his back to the door indicating that he has locked himself out from what the outside world had to offer to the people in his age group. This being the case, the story revolves around the three girls who seem to be out of place when viewed by other people but at the same time open the speaker’s eyes to know that there is more to life than the life he is currently living. Also, the three girls make It known that times have changed, in that the new generation have a new and different way of doing things/living that the earlier generation did not recognize. These aspects are brought about by metaphors and similes that bring about the way of life the people in the new generation live. He creates the metaphors from, colors, shapes, physical appearance and the state of a person (Fandel, 23).

The speaker presents the metaphor of the three girls walking into the store wearing nothing but bathing suits. There is no suit for bathing. However, this term means that most of their physical features are exposed therefore depicting boldness and transparency of the three girls (Updike). This metaphor is fitting in this context both in literal aspect and physical aspect to show the generational differences as the earlier generations only exposed some parts of their bodies and considered excess exposure to be shameful. Also, they were less transparent in showing what they wanted in life which is not the case for the new generation. In this metaphor, the speaker discovers that, although he is a new generation person, he lives with the rules followed by the earlier generation as he is just nineteen years old (Updike).  None the less, by being transparent, the speaker will be able to make more discoveries about himself and of this earth as depicted by the metaphor, ‘they did ‘t even have shoes on’ showing that the girls are living without fear hence not protecting themselves to discover something.

The speaker describes the women who lived in the town as having varicose veins mapping their legs. The metaphor mapping indicates an established way or rather a road that leads to a specific place. On the other hand, varicose veins refers are protrusions of veins in the legs that render the legs not to appear smooth anymore. These words have been metaphorically used to indicate that the old women in the town lived a predictable life that led to a specific place which everyone knew. Also, the metaphor of varicose veins indicates that the destination indicated by the map is not as thrilling as it ought to be. These metaphors are fitting in this context in that they bring about the difference in the rules being followed by the people in the two generations in the view of the earlier generation. By indicating the state of the women of the earlier generation, the speaker discovers that he does not want that to be his predicament (Anderson). In this context, the speaker shows his interests in undertaking a different course of life by taking a different path than the one that was chosen by the earlier generation. The speaker described the girl’s movement to be like a pinball whereby one would not guess which tunnel they would come out of; this is the way the speaker ought to have lived if he did not live by following a map (Updike). This metaphor is further emphasized by the phrase uttered by the store’s manager where he said, ‘you do not want to do this to your mom and dad.’ This indicates that the speakers parents had already planned the life he was to live and actually, he had been living by their rules diligently which depict that he was following a map.

The speaker describes the leader of the girls group as a queen (Updike); this metaphor refers to royalty in that all people in her kingdom bow to her. She is the leader of the people and her followers do everything she does to fit in. This metaphor is appropriate to bring about the meaning of this short story in that although the other girls were not following the ‘maps’ of the old generation, they were still learning on how to become independent and reach their full potential as the ‘queen’ had . This means that the people in the new generation, since they operate in a trial and error way, it takes time for them to reach their full potential (Anderson). This being the case, they lose their independence to live the life of a person who has already discovered herself. Therefore, they do everything she does and follow her everywhere she goes like sheep (Updike). By using this metaphor, the speaker brings out the fact that everyone has a different destiny which is not preconceived by other people, and to discover it; one has to go out and explore. As a result, the speaker is laying out the strategy to follow to realize ones potential in the current generation. The uncertainty of finding out your true destiny is denoted by the metaphor saying that ‘queenie is leading the way holding the gray jar.’ (Updike).Thus indicating that although she is the leader of the group of girls, she is also unsure of her future as gray is a mixture of black and white. Therefore, one cannot tell the kind of future one is riding towards. Some of the metaphors that complement this concept are the plaid green two-piece of the chunky girl that denotes that although she had just joined the way of life of the new generation people. This means that people are at different stages in finding their true destiny (Anderson).

In conclusion, the metaphors in this short story bring about the differences between the way of life of the new generation and the earlier generation. By using the colors, physical appearance, and the state of people and the movements of the girls in the store. One can depict the specific differences that exist between the two groups. In general, the speaker denotes that to have a different life and future one has to undertake a different path that is unknown and try new things instead of following a specified way of doing things like following a map (Updike).

Work cited

Fandel, Jennifer. Metaphors, Similes, and Other Word Pictures. Mankato, Minn: Creative Education, 2006. Print.

Anderson, Laurie H. Speak. , 1999. Internet resource.

John Updike, A&P

 

 

POSC 100 Discussion

1.Before you start to write, READ AND UNDERSTAND the “Discussion Instructions and Rubric” and FOLLOW THE REQUIREMENTS.

2.READ and USE the PDF FILES(named Day 2, Day 3) to write the discussions.

3.You will write 2 discussions based on the material in the pdf files.
Each discussion each page.

4.Each discussion question will be at the last page of the pdf file.

5.Also, I will upload some others’ discussions as examples.

6.You can use the book “American Government: Political Development and Institutional Change, Eighth Edition, CalJillson, Rutledge Press.” as an aid if you have it.

7.Please write better than them and no plagiarism.

8.Please be on time.

Uploaded additional materials:

Research paper

Research paper has to have at least 5 references in APA style and 6 pages only

  • individual assignment (Your Individual Paper):
  • You are Bill Gates’ sibling (the brother or sister) who we have never heard of, however, you are just as brilliant (if not more so) than he. You have a fantastic business idea (I don’t really care what it is for this paper) for a product or service that will take advantage of current (and ubiquitous) technology… the Internet. Your product or service is designed to take advantage of eCommerce (or not, but you must make the case that you’ve considered eCommerce as an alternative but rejected it).
  • Your assignment is to write a paper to cover your initial plan for your business. Later in the term I will ask you to develop your implementation plan (which will incorporate additional information that will be discussed throughout this term), however in this paper you will write your initial business plan to include but not limited to the following:
    • – Why are you taking the eCommerce approach compared to other approaches?
    • – How did you arrive at this decision point… what was your decision making approach?
    • – After you decided on your eCommerce product or service, you created an initial project plan… how did
    • you create your initial project plan? What lead you to decide on the plan that you chose?
    • – If you do decide to go ahead with your project, will all phases of your business be “ethical”? If yes, how
    • will you be certain? If no, why not?
    • Do your best to be comprehensive yet succinct… please do not exceed 10 pages in your paper at this time.
    • Good luck… and always feel free to go beyond the text for the examples that you will present.

MY PROJECT IS: FASHION TRUCK

AND THIS IS MY PROFESOR RECOMMENDATION

  1. You slogan can be “We Bring the Salon to You”… here you aren’t just bringing fashions on a truck, but you are bringing the Salon to the high end buyer

 

  1. Instead of a “Truck”, you might describe it as a “Yacht on Wheels”… the upper class spender who is your customer will be accustomed to going on a Yacht in the Ocean… you can bring the experience of a Yacht to your high end customer.

 

  1. As we discussed earlier today, one of the ways you can apply eCommerce is that your customers will make prior appointments and purchases so that when your Yacht arrives, it is not for them to look around, but it is for you to finalize the sale and possibly take additional orders on the spot.

 

 

 

 

 

The analyze of movie Barbershop

Carefully analyze the film Barbershop, Include a synopsis of what the film was trying to say, an analysis of whether or not it was successful and why. Use concrete examples from the film and be specific. Make sure you identify and analyze major underlying themes。
*State your thesis clearly in the first paragraph.
* Prove your thesis in the body of the paper.
* Sum up in the final paragraph.
* Cite concrete examples from specific scenes to prove your thesis.
* Your thesis should express one central idea.
*  Concentrate on one underlying theme in the film

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbershop_(film)
http://www.3cmediasolutions.org/playlists/752 key=dc581cffa2cb446901cf65b8e5fec333926873a3&i=0

Cultural Diversity

Write a 1,050- to 1,750-word APA formatted paper by following the instructions and questions outlined below

 

 

 

Content & Organization/Development

 

 

 

 

Points Available

80 Percent 16
To earn full credit for each question – all key elements of the assignment are covered in a substantive way. The paper develops a central theme or idea, directed toward the appropriate audience. The presentation links theory to relevant examples of current experience and industry practice and uses the vocabulary of the theory correctly. Major points are stated clearly, are supported by specific details, examples, or analysis, and are organized logically. The content is comprehensive, accurate, and /or persuasive.   
Write a 1,050- to 1,750-word APA formatted paper  
 Introduction (.86 points)
What information, specifically from the class, about diversity in the United States has helped you better understand or relate to others in ways that you may not have in the past in your own words(.84 points) 
 Incorporate a reference specifically from the class reading to support your learning. (.84 points)
Summarize what you have learned something new about your own racial, ethnic, or cultural history in your own words?  (.84 points)
 Incorporate a reference specifically from the class reading to support your learning. (.84 points)
What two challenges does the United States face due to the diversity of its people in your own words? (.84) 
Incorporate a reference specifically from the class reading to support your opinions. (.84 points) 
What are two benefits of such a diverse society in your own words?(.84 points)
 Incorporate a reference specifically from the class reading to support your learning. (.84 points) 
What are the benefits of a diverse workforce in your own words?
Incorporate a reference specifically from the class reading to support your opinions. (.84 points) 
 Do you see your industry becoming more diverse in your own words?
 How is developing your communication with and understanding of diverse cultures helpful in your professional life in your own words?
 Incorporate a reference specifically from the class reading to support your learning. (.84 points) 
Describe two possible ways the government and/or media can foster a climate of acceptance and cultural pluralism in the United States in your own words? (.84 points)
 Incorporate a reference specifically from the class reading to support your learning. (.84 points) 
Summarize three ways individuals in the United States can work together to reduce prejudice and increase appreciation for diversity in your own words?  (.84 points)
 Incorporate a reference specifically from the class reading to support your learning. (.84 points) 
Conclusion (.86 points)
Total 16
Mechanics  Points Available 4
20 Percent
The essay is consistent with APA guidelines as directed by the facilitator. The essay is laid out with effective use of headings, font styles, and white space and includes:  
Title Page (.57 points)  
Reference Page (.57 points)  
Bolded Headings (.57 points)  
Correct Citations & References (.57 points)  
   
Academic instead of casual tone is used. (.57 points)  
Sentences are complete and clear.(.57 points)  
Spelling is correct. (.57 points)  
Total  20