Monthly Archives: September 2015

Small Assessment Responses Intro to Business

For EACH question the responses must be 250-300 words and two paragraphs.

 

You must use the following text book and chapters:

Kelly, M., & McGowen, J. (2012). BUSN 4 (4th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western

 

Chapters 10 and 16

 

DO NOT BID IF YOU DO NOT HAVE ACCESS TO THE TEXT BOOK.

 

Question 1

 

 

What is “cloud computing,” and what are the benefits cloud computing offers to the source and subscriber?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 2

What are the three basic types of securities that are issued by corporations? Explain the key rights for common stock ownership and how these rights benefit the shareholders.

 

 

 

 

 

Question 3

 

An investor has many choices that need to be made before investing his/her money. Identify five strategies that need to be reviewed before an investor can reach his/her personal goals. Discuss the advantages and disadvantage to each strategy.

 

 

 

 

Question 4

List and describe the basic makeup for a computer and the function each performs. Identify and describe the two types of software.

 

All answers must be two paragraphs and 250-300 words EACH. This is due by 9/8/2015 at 5:00PM Central Standard Time. There is no report format needed. These are assessment questions, so a standard word document will do. I will not pay a high price for these assessment questions since they are easy and short. APA formatting and in text citations must be used.

Assembly language

CPSC 2382: Assembly Language Lab #1 Fall 2015
Due date: 9/17/2015
This lab contains three incremental parts as following:
Part I: Subtracting three integers.
Write a program that subtracts three integers, i.e., calculating (x – y – z) for three integers x, y, z that user entered. Use the register EAX to store the final result. Your program shall have the following three features:
1) Display the welcome message;
2) Allowing the user to input the three integers from keyboard;
3) Display the result in decimal in the console window.
For example, the runtime screen shot can be as follows (the three numbers entered for x, y and z can be either on the same line or across three lines):
Welcome! This program subtracts three integer numbers.
Please input three integers x, y, and z:
40
20
5
The result of (x – y –z) is: 15
Press any key to continue …
Part II: Making your program repetitive, i.e., allowing the user to calculate subtraction of a new group of three integers after having done with one group. Your program needs to clear the screen before starting with a new group.
Part III: Execute your program line by line and trace the change of register EAX. Include screenshots in your lab report to show the change of EAX. (You need to set a breakpoint at the beginning of your program and run your program with the option “Start Debugging”).
[Hints:
1. To display a string, you should first define the string in data segment. Then insert the following two instructions to display it (in you program, you should replace stringName with the actual name of your string):
CPSC 2382: Assembly Language Lab #1 Fall 2015
mov edx, OFFSET stringName
call WriteString
2. The instruction call ReadInt reads a 32-bit signed integer from the keyboard and returns the value in EAX.
3. The instruction call WriteDec writes a 32-bit unsigned integer in EAX to the console window in decimal format.
4. You need to store the integer in memory every time you read an integer from the keyboard. Otherwise, it will be overwritten by the newly read integer.
The following two instructions might be needed for Part II.
5. The instruction call Clrscr clears the console window.
6. Instruction jmp allows you to jump to a place indicated by L1 below:
L1:

jmp L1
Please refer to Chapter 5 Section 5.4 for details on how to use these instructions. ]
Requirements:
1. Submit your source code (.asm file) which should run correctly. (You just need to submit one .asm file since part 3 includes part 2 and part 2 includes part 1). Necessary comments are needed in your code.
2. Submit a lab report. The lab report (i.e., a doc file) should include three parts: Introduction, Implementation, and Summary. The introduction briefly describes the purpose of this lab. The implementation part gives detailed description on how you implemented the task, including the runtime screen shots, as well as necessary discussions. The summary concludes the lab, e.g., what you’ve learned from this lab.
Please submit through blackboard system!
(We only accept electronic submissions for all labs)

Clinical practice improvement paper (Shared decision making)

Clinical practice improvement paper (Shared decision making)

Order Description

Assignment 2
This assignment builds on the work already undertaken for previous Assignment 1 (Investigation of a clinical governance and clinical practice improvement issue; Shared decision making). I have uploaded that assignment 1 paper. please read it prior to starting on this.
You will be extra provided with:
• resources relating to commonly used CPI(Clinical Practice improvement) tools
• a CPI template that you must type your CPI paper into.

You will be required to construct a CPI report using the supplied CPI template. In order to pass this assignment, you must successfully address each of the criteria outlined on the marking rubric

ASSIGNMENT 2
Clinical Practice Improvement Project Report
Project Title:

Project Aim:

Relevance of Clinical Governance to your project

Evidence that the issue / problem is worth solving:

Key Stakeholders:

CPI Tool:

Summary of proposed interventions:

Barriers to implementation and sustaining change:

Evaluation of the project:

NURS2006 Assignment 3 – CPI paper Marking Rubric
PERFORMANCE STANDARD
CATEGORY & WEIGHTING

Excellent Work
Good Work
Passing Work
Unsatisfactory work

Project Aim and Evidence the issue is worth solving
20%

Aim succinct & clearly
defined. All evidence relevant & rigorous. Shows a very high level of insight & relevance to the issue.

(17-20) ?
Aim well defined.
Some irrelevant information but most evidence relevant & rigorous. Shows a very good level of insight & relevance to the issue.

(13-16.5) ?    Aim stated with some ambiguity. Some evidence relevant and rigorous,
Acceptable level of insight.
Quite a lot of irrelevant information is present. May be overlong/ too brief

(10-12.5) ?    Aim not clearly stated
Most evidence is not relevant or rigorous.
Poor level of insight & relevance to the issue. Significant amount of irrelevant/ missing information.
(0–9.5) ?

Relevance of Clinical Governance to your project

10%    Succinct and highly relevant discussion of the relevant pillar of clinical governance related to the chosen clinical issue.

(9-10) ?    Succinct and mostly relevant discussion of the relevant pillar of clinical governance related to the chosen clinical issue.

(7-8.5) ?    Adequate discussion of the relevant pillar of clinical governance related to the chosen clinical issue.
Some parts not relevant Overlong / too brief, may be missing relevant information.
(5-6.5) ?    Inadequate discussion of the relevant pillar of clinical governance related to the chosen clinical issue. Overlong / too brief, may be missing a significant amount of relevant information
(0-4.5) ?

Key Stakeholders
5%    Identifies most relevant key stakeholders. Discusses clearly how they could be involved in the project.
Succinctly and expertly written. Very high level of insight into the role of stakeholders.

(4.5 – 5) ?
Identifies some relevant key stakeholders and adequately discusses how they could be involved in the project.
Very well written. Good level of insight into the role of stakeholders.

(3.5-4.25) ?    Identifies a few relevant key stakeholders. Mentions briefly how they could be involved. Quite well written but contains some irrelevant information, or minor information is missing. Adequate level of insight into the stakeholder role.
(2.5 – 3.25- ) ?    Contains irrelevant information, or major information is missing.
Inappropriate or no key stakeholders are identified Poor insight into the stakeholder role.

(0-2) ?

Clinical Practice Improvement Tool
20%    Describes a relevant CPI tool Very clearly discusses how it could be used to address the aim and implement the interventions. Succinctly and expertly written with no omissions of relevant information.

(17-20) ?
Describes a relevant CPI tool Discusses quite clearly how the tool could be used to address the aim and implement the interventions. Well written but may contain some irrelevant information, or some minor information is missing
(13-16.5) ?    Describes a relevant CPI tool and adequately discusses how the tool could be used to address the aim and implement the interventions.
Not succinct, contains irrelevant information,  significant information is missing
(10-12.5) ?    A relevant CPI tool is not identified. There is no adequate discussion of how the tool could be used to meet the aim or implement the interventions.
Contains irrelevant information or some major information is missing.
(0–9.5) ?

Summary of proposed interventions
20%    All relevant interventions are discussed very well.
Project outline is very clear and the relevance to clinical practice is very high.

(17-20) ?    Most relevant interventions discussed quite well.
Project outline is clear & relevance to clinical practice is good. Contains some irrelevant information, minor information may be missing.

(13-16.5) ?    Acceptable level of relevant interventions discussed.
Project outline mostly clear, although it may be unclear how the project would actually be implemented in clinical practice due to irrelevant/missing info

(10-12.5) ?    Some elements missing or incomplete. May contain large amounts of irrelevant information.
Project poorly described and it is unclear what the project actually entails or its relevance to clinical practice.

(0–9.5) ?

Barriers to Implementation
15%    Identifies most potential barriers to implementation & clinical change. Discusses in depth how these barriers could be overcome or minimised.

(13-15) ?    Identifies some potential barriers to implementation & clinical change. Discusses how these barriers could be overcome or minimised.

(10-12.5) ?    Identifies a few potential barriers to implementation & clinical change. Discusses how barriers could be overcome or minimised. Minor omissions and/or some irrelevant information present
(7.5-9.5) ?    Relevant barriers not identified. Poor or no discussion about how they could be overcome or minimised. Major omissions, much of the information provided is irrelevant / unrelated to the CPI goal.
(0-7) ?

Evaluation of the project
10%    Succinct discussion of an excellent and achievable plan for how the intervention/s could be evaluated.

(9-10) ?    Succinct discussion of a very good and mostly achievable plan for how the intervention/s could be evaluated.

(7-8.5) ?    Discussion of an adequate plan for how the intervention/s could be evaluated. Some parts not relevant or achievable
Overlong / too brief, may be missing relevant information.

(5-6.5) ?    Plan absent or not well described. Most or all of the plan is not relevant or achievable
Overlong / too brief, may be missing a significant amount of relevant information

(0-4.5) ?

Name of Marker

Grade

Overall Comments

CLINICAL GUIDELINE – Therapeutic Hypothermia in Cardiac Arrest

CLINICAL GUIDELINE – Therapeutic Hypothermia in Cardiac Arrest

Order Description

Length: 2,000 -2,500 words. AND create Clinical Guideline or Flow Chart
Task:
The AGREE II tool (instrument) will be incorporated into this assessment item to assist the student’s ability to create a pre-hospital guideline. AGREE II is a very flexible tool that can be used for any disease area targeting any step in the health care continuum, including those for health promotion, public health, screening, diagnosis, treatment or interventions. The AGREE II handbook and user manual are both within the readings and also in the resources section of Interact.

Utilising the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II document, create your own Clinical Guideline on to be used by Paramedics. Your guideline will be grounded in the evidence that you have created from your first assessment item in this subject. You will need to read the AGREE user manual and guide to gain an understanding of how this tool works and how it can be used to both critique guidelines as well as build them, based upon research evidences and best practice.

You will need to work through each area of the AGREE system, and search the evidence that you have found in order to make a final recommendation based on you findings. You should strengthen your response to each component by drawing on a wide range of resources that you have collected which acknowledge specific requirements for each component, and then use this information to create your chosen guideline.

Presentation
As well as providing information to the reader about the development of your guideline against the
AGREE II criteria, you may choose to present your clinical guideline as a flow chart , table or any other relevant format . Diagrams are encouraged where appropriate to provide clear instructions to guide the clinicians.

Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. In addition, guidelines can play an important role in health policy formation and have evolved to cover topics across the health care continuum. Many ambulance service guidelines are referred to also as ‘protocols’ which are considered less flexible for the end user rather than the use of ‘guidelines’.

The potential benefits of guidelines are only as good as the quality of the guidelines themselves. Appropriate methodologies and rigorous strategies in the guideline development process are important for the successful implementation of the resulting recommendations. The quality of guidelines can be extremely variable and some often fall short of basic standards. It is interesting to note that ambulance services now feel obliged to include research and references within their guidelines, which is very different to what would have been normal practice 10 years ago. The use of evidence based practice is becoming increasingly important for validity and credibility at all levels from local to international.

The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) Instrument was developed to address the issue of variability in guideline quality. To that end, the AGREE instrument is a tool that assesses the methodological rigour and transparency in which a guideline is developed. The original (2003) AGREE instrument has been refined, which has resulted in the new AGREE II and includes a new User’s Manual. This is available both in the readings and within the resources.

The purpose of the AGREE II, is to provide a framework to:
1.Assess the quality of guidelines;
2.Provide a methodological strategy for the development of guidelines; and
3.Inform what information and how information ought to be reported in guidelines.

National Collegiate Athletic Association Ethics and Compliance Program *

National Collegiate Athletic Association Ethics and Compliance Program *

Order Description

answer the fallowing questions

1. How does the NCAA encourage collegiate football programs to develop a culture of ethics and compliance?

2. Is it a valid criticism that the NCAA is based more on compliance than ethical values?

3. How can student athletes, coaches, and university administrators demonstrate a proactive response to ethics and compliance?

USE THIS TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

National Collegiate Athletic Association Ethics and Compliance Program *

INTRODUCTION
Perhaps no sport at American colleges is as popular, or as lucrative, as college football. College football often has a significant impact on the school’s culture. This is especially true for the more successful and prolific football programs, such as Texas A&M or Notre Dame. Football has increasingly become a big money maker for many colleges, with a significant amount of sports revenue coming from their football programs. Within the past two years, the sports channel ESPN made deals with certain teams to gain rights to air more games than usual. Because of this influx of revenue, the duties of coaches have evolved beyond just coaching. In many ways, they became the face of the team. Programs that show positive returns have coaches working hard to fill seats on game day and encourage college alumni to donate to the school. The more successful the football team, the more visibility it is given in the media. This visibility leads to greater awareness of the college or university among the public, and schools with the best football programs can see a greater influx of applications. The collegiate football programs have an intangible influence within and outside their immediate surroundings. This is mainly seen in their fan base, composed of current students, alumni, staff, faculty, and local businesses. For example, when the University of Alabama won its 15 th national championship, the victory was celebrated by an enormous crowd, fire- works, and a parade. Texas A&M University is one example of a football program that generates not only profits but also a sense of loyalty among its fans. Approximately 70,000 football fans pile into Texas A&M’s Kyle Field stadium at every home game to show their support for the team and the university. Table 1 shows the value of some of the most successful college- football programs. These games also help local businesses generate more revenues. Because of the financial support and widespread influence of the football program, the players, coaches, and football administrators have to deal with a lot of pressure to fundraise, sell tickets, and win games. These pressures open up opportunities for miscon- duct to occur, and it is increasingly important that university administrators and football program officials directly acknowledge opportunities for misconduct. While the university is ultimately responsible for the operation of each department and the behavior of its employees, it can be difficult for the administrators to have an objective view of incidents that occur, especially when it involves a successful football program that benefits the entire university.
* This case was prepared by Michelle Urban, Kathleen Dubyk, Ben Skaer, and Bethany Buchner for and under the direction of O.C. and Linda Ferrell. It was prepared for classroom discussion rather than to illustrate either effec- tive or ineffective handling of an administrative, ethical, or legal decision by management. All sources used for this case were obtained through publicly available material.

*****Table 1- Value of major-conference college-football programs, plus Notre Dame and BYU (in millions)*****

Rank School Value 1
1-Texas $ 761.7
2-Michigan $ 731.9
3-Florida $ 599.7
4-Notre Dame $ 597.4
5-Ohio St. $ 586.6
6-Auburn $ 508.1
7-Georgia $ 481.8
8-Alabama $ 476.0
9-LSU $ 471.7
10-Oklahoma $ 454.7
11-lowa $ 384.4
12-Tennessee $ 364.6
13-Nebraska $ 360.1
14-Arkansas $ 332.0
15-S.Carolina $ 311.9
16-Penn St. $ 300.8
17-Wisconsin $ 296.1
18-Texas A&M $ 278.5
19 Oregon $ 264.6
20 Washington $ 259.9
21 Michigan St. $ 224.8
22 Texas Tech $ 211.0
23 Oklahoma St. $ 209.1
24 Kansas St. $ 207.1
25 Colorado $ 202.9
26 Kentucky $ 202.7
27 Clemson $ 201.8
28 USC $ 197.8
29 Georgia Tech $ 188.4
30 Virginia Tech $ 171.5
31 Arizona St. $ 164.6
32 West Virginia $ 159.4
33 Florida St. $ 159.0
34 Miami (Fla.) $ 157.7
35-Northwestern $ 148.8
36 Stanford $ 148.7

37 Virginia $ 146.3
38 Purdue $ 145.1
39 N.C. State $ 143.0
40 Indiana $ 142.7
41 lowa St. $ 140.3
42 Minnesota $ 139.7
43 BYU $ 136.1
44 Arizona $ 126.8
45 UCLA $ 125.8
46 Utah $ 119.7
47 Oregon St. $ 118.8
48 Illinois $ 117.3
49 Mississippi $ 111.7
50 Boston College $ 110.2
51 Kansas $ 103.4
52 Connecticut $ 101.8
53 South Florida $ 101.2
54 North Carolina $ 99.8

55 Mississippi St. $ 99.3
56 Maryland $ 96.0
57 California $ 92.6
58 Syracuse $ 91.4
59 Texas Christian $ 76.6
60 Louisville $ 75.4
61 Washington St. $ 73.4
62 Baylor $ 71.3
63 Rutgers $ 64.1
64 Duke $ 62.0
65 Pittsburgh $ 59.6
66 Vanderbilt $ 57.3
67 Missouri $ 56.4
68 Cincinnati $ 48.9
69 Temple $ 46.9
********************************************************************************

The university administrators are often subject to the same pressures as those in the football program to increase the level of revenue and reputation. This led to the development of a more objective institution to set and enforce rules and standards: the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The NCAA views ethical conduct as a crucial component to a college football program and works to promote leadership and excellence among student–athletes and the universities to which they belong. It also serves to protect the interests of student–athletes, ensure academic excellence, and encourage fair play. In this case, we provide a brief history of the NCAA and examples of the rules they have regarding college football. We then view how these rules relate to ethics. The next section covers some of the major college football scandals within the past few years, how these scandals were handled by the schools and the NCAA, and the impact of these scandals upon the colleges’ communities. It is crucial to note, however, that these scandals are not common to college football as a whole. The majority of football teams receive no NCAA infractions during the year, and those reported are usually minor in nature. Universities have their own set of expectations for student–athletes, including show- ing up on time to practice and behaving responsibly that go above and beyond NCAA rules. However, when NCAA violations occur, universities have a responsibility to report them in a timely manner. Therefore, the next section covers examples of ways universities addressed unethical behavior in their football programs through self-imposed sanctions, which signifies that they consider compliance to be an important component of their football programs. We conclude by analyzing how effective the NCAA appears to be in curbing misconduct and preventing future unethical behavior from occurring. This case should demonstrate that ethics and compliance is just as important to nonprofit organizations and educational institutions as they are for the business world.

OVERVIEW OF NCAA
The NCAA was formed in 1906 under the premise of protecting student–athletes from being endangered and exploited. The Association was established with a constitution and a set of bylaws with the ability to be amended as issues arise. As the number of competitive college sports grew, the NCAA was divided into three Divisions, I, II, and III, to deal with the rising complexity of the programs. Universities are given the freedom to decide which division they want to belong to based on their desired level of competitiveness in collegiate sports. Each Division is equipped with the power to establish a group of presidents or other university officials with the authority to write and enact policies, rules, and regulations for their Divisions. Each Division is ultimately governed by the President of the NCAA and the Executive Committee. Under the Executive Committee are groups formed in each Division, such as the Legislative Committee, as well as Cabinets and Boards of Directors. In the early 1980s, questions began to arise concerning the level of education student–athletes received. Some thought these students were held to a lower academic standard so they could focus on their sport, which could lead to negative consequences for their futures. As a result, the NCAA strengthened the academic requirements of student–athletes to ensure they took academics just as seriously as athletics. It also established the Presidents Commission, composed of presidents of universities in each Division that collaboratively set agendas with the NCAA. Table 2 provides a list of six of the Principles for Conduct of Intercollegiate Athletics that can be found in Article 2 of the Constitution. Throughout the Constitution, the NCAA emphasizes the responsibility each university has in overseeing its athletics department and being compliant with the terms established by its conferences. The NCAA establishes principles, rules, and enforcement guidelines to both guide the universities in their oversight of the athletics department as well as penalize those failing to regulate their own misconduct. In article ten of the bylaws, a description of ethical and unethical conduct among student–athletes is provided, along with corresponding disciplinary actions taken if any of these conditions are violated. Honesty and sportsmanship are emphasized as the basis of ethical conduct, while wagering, withholding information, and fraud are among the unethical behaviors listed. Article 11 describes the appropriate behavior for athletics personnel. Honesty and sportsmanship is again the basis for ethical behavior, but with an added emphasis on responsibility for NCAA regulations. Article 11 cites the Head Coach as responsible for creating an atmosphere of compliance and monitoring the behavior of his or her subordinates, including assistant coaches and players. The NCAA takes the enforcement of rules seriously and tries to ensure the penalties fit the violation if misconduct does occur. The organization also makes sure the penalties are handed down in a timely manner, not only to indicate the seriousness of the infraction but also to maintain a credible and effective enforcement program. This method tries to correct or eliminate deviant behavior while maintaining fairness to those members of the Association not involved in violations. Employees (coaches and other administrative …

*****TABLE 2 Principles for Conduct of Intercollegiate Athletics******

The Principle of Institutional Control and Responsibility
• Puts the responsibility for the operations and behaviors of staff on the president of the university

The Principle of Student-Athlete Well-Being
• Requires integration of athletics and education, maintaining a culturally diverse and gender equitable environment, protection of student-athlete’s health and safety, creating an environment that is conducive to positive coach/student-athlete relationships, coaches and administrative staff show honesty, fairness, and openness in their relationships with student– athletes, and student-athlete involvement in decisions that will affect them …

The Principle of Sportsmanship and Ethical Conduct
• Maintains that respect, fairness, civility, honesty, and responsibility are values that need to be adhered to through the establishment of policies for sportsmanship and ethical conduct in the athletics program which must be consistent with the mission and goals of the university. Everyone must be continuously educated about the policies.

The Principle of Sound Academic Standards
• Maintains that student–athletes need to be held to the same academic standards as all other students

The Principle of Rules Compliance
• Requires compliance with NCAA rules. Notes that the NCAA will help institutions in developing their compliance program and explains the penalty for noncompliance

The Principle Governing Recruiting
• Promotes equity among prospective students and protects them from exorbitant pressures

*******************************************************************************

….staff) are exhorted to have high ethical standards since they work among and influence young people. The NCAA makes it a requirement that each employee engage in exemplary conduct so as not to cause harm to the student–athletes in any way. They are also given a responsibility to cooperate with the NCAA. The NCAA lays out three types of violations and corresponding penalties, depend- ing on the nature and scope of the violation. Secondary violations are the least severe and can result in fines, suspensions for games, and reduction in scholarships. For major violations, some of the penalties are the same as secondary violations, but the scope is far more severe. For example, suspensions will be longer and fines larger. However, some penalties are specific only to major violations, such as a public reprimand, a probationary period for up to five years, and limits on recruiting. The last type involves repeat violations that occur within a five-year period from the start date of the initial violation. The penalties for repeat violations are the most severe, including elimination of all financial aid and recruiting activities and resignation of institutional staff members who serve on boards, committees, or in cabinets. Table 3 lists some of the more prominent unethical practices the NCAA lists specifically concerning college football. The NCAA incorporates a compliance approach to ethics by developing and enforcing rules to keep the games fair and respectful of student–athletes’ rights. The NCAA Committee on Sportsmanship and Ethical Conduct identified respect and integrity as two critical elements in the NCAA 2011 and 2012 Football Rules and Interpretations. The NCAA strives to keep football games fun and entertaining without sacrificing the health and safety of the student–athletes participating. As previously mentioned, the NCAA …

******TABLE 3 Unethical Practices Prohibited by the NCAA*********

• Use of the helmet as a weapon.

• Targeting and initiating contact. Players, coaches and officials should emphasize the elimination of targeting and initiating contact against a defenseless opponent and/or with the crown of the helmet.

• Using nontherapeutic drugs in the game of football.

• Unfair use of a starting signal, called “Beating the ball.” This involves deliberately stealing an advantage from the opponent. An honest starting signal is needed, but a signal that has for its purpose starting the team a fraction of a second before the ball is put in play, in the hope that it will not be detected by the officials, is illegal.

• Feigning an injury. An injured player must be given full protection under the rules, but feigning injury is dishonest, unsportsmanlike and contrary to the spirit of the rules.

• Talking to an opponent in any manner that is demeaning, vulgar, or abusive, intended to incite a physical response or verbally put an opponent down.

• For a coach to address, or permit anyone on his bench to address, uncomplimentary remarks to any official during the progress of a game, or to indulge in conduct that might incite players or spectators against the officials. , is a violation of the rules of the game and must likewise be considered conduct unworthy of a member of the coaching profession.
********************************************************************************

… places emphasis on the level of education student–athletes receive and encourages athletes to focus on their grades to ensure they have career opportunities post-athletics. The core of the NCAA concerns ethics. This organization takes not only key players into consideration, but also other stakeholders, such as the college community and the sports society as a whole. Aside from its involvement with student–athlete academics, the NCAA is likewise involved with other off-the-field activities to protect the best interests of student–athletes. According to NCAA guidelines, college football coaches are not permitted to actively begin recruiting prospective players to their school until the prospective player is at least a junior in high school. These coaches have a limit on the number of phone calls and off-campus visits they are permitted to make to prospective students. These rules are in place to ensure student–athletes do not feel pressured by these colleges. Once the student–athletes are in college, a set of rules made between the NCAA and the individual college limit the types of gifts a student–athlete can accept. Parents of student–athletes, for example, are able to give any number and type of gifts to their own children, but must be wary when it comes to other members of the team. Student–athletes generally cannot accept gifts at reduced prices (e.g., a free iPod) and other gifts, such as practice uniforms for the team, must be cleared by the school first. Despite the NCAA’s wide array of rules and regulations, there have been many criticisms of the organization’s practices. One of these criticisms has to do with a former investigator of the NCAA, Ameen Najjar, who worked on investigating reports of rule violations from the University of Miami. Najjar was promptly dismissed from the NCAA when it was found he was going outside the NCAA’s rules of investigation in order to collect more evidence for the case. Not only was this a major embarrassment for the NCAA, but critics state Najjar followed orders from others within the organization and was put up as a scapegoat when the rule-breaking investigative techniques came to light. The NCAA also faces a law- suit wherein they are accused of allowing the video game company EA to use the likeness of NCAA basketball players in their video games without giving the players any compensation. Additionally, misconduct in college sports continues to be a challenge for the NCAA. Often other stakeholders are involved in the misconduct. For instance, college sports games that have been “rigged” (managed fraudulently) have often been traced to wealthy sports boosters with inside knowledge of the sports in which they heavily invest. A majority of the time, this rigging is done to benefit gambling outcomes among these boosters. In addition, as mentioned earlier, college sports often bring in significant amounts of revenue for the university that creates pressure to overlook misconduct. Authority figures in the sports program can be tempted to cheat when recruiting players and cover up misconduct to avoid penalties. When a college sports program is accused of misconduct that violates NCAA rules, the NCAA conducts an investigation to determine whether the allegations are true. If these schools are found to be in violation, the NCAA levies penalties against the team. However, the NCAA also received criticism from those who disapprove of the severity and effective- ness of the sanctions meant to discourage sports programs from misconduct. On the one hand, some stakeholders believe the NCAA sanctions are too tough. On the other hand, others feel they are not strict enough. They state some of the major college football pro- grams hit by NCAA sanctions were able to recover from these penalties quickly and did not suffer much during the course of the sanctions. This argument implies that avoiding the risks of punishment is less costly to the team than the benefits of bending the rules. Whether NCAA sanctions are too harsh or not harsh enough, pressure to maintain the sports programs provides the opportunity for misconduct in the college sports community, as well as creates significant challenges for the NCAA.

CHALLENGES FOR ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE IN COLLEGE FOOTBALL

College football is far more than just a sport. For many universities, it is a business that brings millions of dollars to colleges all over the United States. Being a business, there are always ethical and compliance issues that take place. The question is whether schools ignore issues taking place because of the amount of money a football program generates for the school. If so, this creates a significant conflict of interest. In the past few years, a number of highly publicized scandals have rocked the college football industry and led to heavy criticism of the schools where the scandals occurred. The actions of the NCAA in response to these scandals received mixed reactions from stakeholders. However, a more serious concern for the NCAA is how to ensure college sports teams comply with ethical policies as well as combating the tendency for colleges to remain complacent because of the success of the sports team. The following examples describe three major college football scandals, how the schools reacted to the scandals, and the sanctions, if any, the NCAA took against the team.

Penn State Scandal
In 2011 accusations arose alleging that a former assistant coach of the Penn State football team sexually assaulted at least eight young boys over the course of many years. It was not long before the school itself was implicated in suspecting or knowing about the crime but not taking adequate steps to stop it. Two university officials turned themselves in to authorities for being accused of covering up the crimes. According to investigations, the first report of potential misconduct between the former assistant coach Jerry Sandusky and an underage boy came in 1998. The report came to University police and the Senior Vice President for Finance and Business, Gary Schultz. This matter was investigated internally and resulted in no criminal charges based on a lack of evidence. In 2001 a graduate assistant allegedly witnessed the perpetrator sexually assaulting a young boy in the Penn State football team’s practice center. The graduate assistant reported the incident to Head Coach Joe Paterno, who staked his reputation on running a program known for ethics and integrity. While Paterno appeared to have notified campus officials, the officials did not report to police, allowing the crime to continue. A later report conducted by former director of the FBI Louis Freeah indicated the coach and school officials covered up the crimes. This led to accusations that the school cared more about its reputation and the success of its football program than it did about the young victims. This case is even more serious as such misconduct does not just constitute an NCAA violation; it is a criminal act that harmed many people. Although Joe Paterno did report the crime to campus officials, some felt it was his responsibility to do more to ensure the crimes were reported to the proper authorities. The assistant coach continued to interact with young boys and be around the college campus after the reports were made. The negligent behavior of Penn State officials, both within the administration and the football department, might be explained through the strength of the football program and the complacency of the university culture. Head Coach Joe Paterno had been at Penn State’s football department for more than 60 years at the time of the scandal. The way he ran the department indicated a reliance on old football standards and an inability or unwilling- ness to adapt to new ones. Unfortunately, this culture had pitfalls that did not hold up to modern ethical standards. Some reports claim that on different occasions he advocated for football players not to be held to the same standards as regular students, implying football players should be treated differently than other students by the university. When football players got in trouble with the law, Paterno felt the university should not take action but rather let the police deal with it. Although he butted heads with many people when it came to these views, school directors were on his side of the argument. This is likely because of the large amount of revenue the program brought into the school. According to one accusation, Coach Paterno used this revenue as a threat to stop all fund raising if a certain director he disagreed with was not fired. If these allegations are true, then Paterno created a culture within the football department wherein members did not need to be held accountable according to school regulations. This in turn indicates a complacent university culture when it came to the football program. The NCAA agreed the misconduct was partially the fault of the football program’s and Penn State’s complacency. In addition to the negative impact on the victims, Penn State suffered reputational damage and received a major blow to its football program. The NCAA imposed sanctions against Penn State costing $ 60 million in fines, a four-year post- season ban prohibiting the school from being eligible for any post games until 2016, and a four-year reduction in scholarships amounting to ten scholarships per year for the football program. The football team’s wins from between 1998 and 2011 were vacated. These penal- ties drastically hurt the football program’s ability to compete against other teams. In total, there were seven penalties placed on the university and athletics program combined. The NCAA is taking steps to make sure the activities that took place at Penn State do not hap- pen again. As an aside, the Paterno family announced they were filing a lawsuit against the NCAA and its President on behalf of Penn State, citing the investigation conducted by former director of the FBI Louis Freeah—a report the NCAA relied heavily upon in imposing sanctions against Penn State—was seriously flawed in its conclusions of blame. The NCAA also put ten corrective sanctions on Penn State formulated specifically for them. The main corrective measure was that the university must sign an Athletic Integrity Agreement. In doing so, this allowed the NCAA to require Penn State to take eight corrective steps. These steps include the addition of a compliance officer for the athletics department, the creation of a compliance council and a full disclosure program, adding internal accountability and certifications for this accountability, implementation of an external compliance review/certification process, drafting an athletics code of conduct, conducting training and education, and appointing an independent athletics integrity monitor. All of the steps will be continuously updated to ensure their internal and external controls stay relevant. The NCAA’s goal for the corrective sanctions is to find and stop unethical behavior before it becomes a problem.

Ohio State
The Ohio State scandal was a result of rule violations from student–athletes and a sub- sequent cover-up of the violations by the coach. In December 2010 five players on Ohio State’s football team were suspended for using the gear the football team supplied to barter for cash and tattoos. Under the NCAA rules, it is illegal for a Division I football player to receive any benefit from anyone that is not offered to the public. Head Coach Jim Tressel became aware of the violation and failed to report it to the school for a period of nine months. This enabled the team to continue to play in games they otherwise would have been ineligible to play. In addition to the suspensions, the NCAA also banned Ohio State from a bowl game for one year, took five scholarships away for the following three years, and put the team on a one-year probation. When it was discovered Tressel had prior knowledge of the violation, the NCAA issued a five-year show-cause order on him, forcing him to resign and virtually ending his career as a coach in collegiate athletics. A college can hire a coach who has an outstanding show-cause order, but they may be penalized simply for hiring him. In addition, if a coach with a show-cause order does in fact get hired and makes a subsequent violation, the consequences will be far more severe on both the coach and the university. Most colleges will not take the risk of hiring a coach with this kind of label. This was not the only violation to be found among members of the Ohio State football team. After the bartering scandal, the NCAA suspended three other players for accepting money from a booster. A booster is a fan who has a significant amount of money and invests in the team to build better facilities, contribute to scholarships, and sometimes have a choice in who the coaching staff will be. However, student–athletes are not to take any money or gifts from boosters directly. It is a direct violation of the rules of the NCAA. Additionally, other players were suspended for being overpaid by the same booster for work in a summer job. The NCAA placed these sanctions on Ohio State for failure to properly oversee their athletics program. Many of the administrators commented if they knew of the football players’ conduct, they would have taken corrective action against it. Ohio State took responsibility for its actions and cooperated with the NCAA investigation. Ohio State imposed its own penalties against the football program, including vacating the 2010 season. Yet the NCAA made it a point to show the administrators it is their responsibility to know what is going on within their organization. Additionally, the NCAA also noted Tressel withheld information multiple times from NCAA investigators. In total, the sanctions cost Ohio State an estimated $ 8 million.

University of Arkansas
Head Coach Bobby Petrino was respected and admired for his coaching abilities by every- one, even those who did not have a high opinion of him personally. Before coaching at University of Arkansas in 2007, Petrino left bitter feelings at the football organizations where he previously worked. For example, he secretly tried to get one of his former bosses fired, he pressured a student to go to practice rather than attend a funeral where he was to be a pallbearer, and he left his job with the Atlanta Falcons by leaving a short note in the lockers of each player before the season ended. Petrino’s questionable behavior continued while he coached for the University of Arkansas. He had been with the university since 2007 and transformed the team into championship material. However, a motorcycle accident in early 2012 revealed a latent scandal brewing for several months. At the time of the accident Petrino claimed he was riding alone, but changed his story, as the police report was about to become public. He admitted he rode with Jessica Dorrell, a 25 -year-old former student who Petrino hired as the Student Athlete Development Coordinator just a week prior. He further admitted he initially lied about the details of the accident because he and Dorrell were involved in an inappropriate relationship. Petrino hoped to keep this information secret as is evidenced by the fact he filed the report with a state trooper who worked as his personal security after he parted ways with Dorrell. This incident was a scandal for two reasons. First, Petrino was married with four children, and second, he had hired Dorrell without stating to the university there was a conflict of interest due to their personal relationship. Because she was hired as a state employee, not disclosing the conflict of interest was illegal. Additionally, the position she was given reported directly to Petrino himself. Upon investigation, it was found that Petrino also gave Dorrell gifts amounting to $ 20,000. All of these things taken together caused the Athletic Director of the University of Arkansas Jeff Long to fire Petrino. However, the decision was not easy for him to make. Petrino’s contributions to the success of the football team were no small matter, and the consequences of letting him go would affect the team’s performance. However, keeping Petrino as Head Coach would demonstrate that the university condoned the misconduct. Dorrell resigned a few days after Petrino was fired. In less than a year after the University of Arkansas scandal, Petrino was hired as Head Coach of the Hilltoppers of Western Kentucky University. Some say this arrangement is good for both of the parties involved. Petrino gets to coach football for a lower ranking football program while waiting for the scandal to blow over, and Western Kentucky University gets to take advantage of Petrino’s coaching for a few years. The arrangement drew some criticism to the school. Some say the hiring of a coach recently fired for a scan- dal speaks to the fact that the school values winning games over ethical behavior. Fortunately for the University of Arkansas and Bobby Petrino, NCAA rules had not been violated, so sanctions were avoided. Jeff Long showed ethical leadership in the way he handled the Petrino scandal even without pressure from the NCAA. Long refused to be complacent when the misconduct became apparent even when, in the short term, it did not seem like it would benefit the university. The football team suffered from the loss of Coach Petrino, but the university’s actions express it expects high ethical standards from its football program and will accept no less. Because it creates a culture of ethics and compliance, schools like the University of Arkansas step up to the plate and make the right decision even when misconduct does not constitute an NCAA violation.

SELF-REPORTING AND MONITORING STUDENT ATHLETES

Minor violations become scandals when they are covered up for long periods of time by the university, the football program authorities, or both. No matter where the cover up begins or ends, the ultimate responsibility lies with the university to monitor the actions of the football program. If the culture of the university fosters misconduct, minor violations will inevitably become scandals. On the other hand, universities that monitor their athletics programs so minor violations are caught immediately and reported to the NCAA are less likely to be involved in major scandals. This act of self-reporting demonstrates a concern with ethical behavior and accountability for their actions. Furthermore, the NCAA takes these measures into account when deciding on the appropriate level of penalties for violations. In 2011 the NCAA approached Boise State with 22 allegations of misconduct within its athletics department. Becoming aware of this misconduct, the university as well as the head coaches acted immediately and in collaboration with the NCAA. During the university’s investigation, they found other violations the NCAA was unaware of and reported them to the Association. Violations included incidents when assistant coaches arranged low-cost housing and transportation for prospective football players. While the monetary value of these accommodations was under $ 5,000, the duration of time these activities had gone on was five years. Boise State developed and submitted a set of self-imposed sanctions against the athletic department that included three fewer preseason practices for the current and upcoming year and three fewer scholarships for the next two years. After reviewing the incidents and the proposed sanctions, the NCAA eliminated three more scholarships for an additional year and placed the university on probation for three years. The NCAA imposed harsher sanctions due to what it perceived to be a lack of institutional control and the fact that the infractions had gone on for so long. The university admitted it lost control over compliance because of the rate of growth of the football program. It claims it has taken steps to strengthen its compliance department by hiring a new director and adding new language to its student handbook to clarify its expectations. The University of New Mexico also received sanctions for misconduct in its football program. The case involved academic fraud that occurred in 2004 and was not discovered by the university until 2007. Two former assistant coaches helped three recruits and one currently enrolled student receive academic credit through an online course for which the students did not complete work. Despite the fact the incident occurred three years prior, the university took the matter seriously and imposed heavy sanctions. It reduced the number of scholarship offers by one, the overall number of scholarships by two, the number of coaches allowed to recruit by one for the next two years, and the number of official visits to recruits by four for one year. It also imposed a two-year probation period on the football program and reduced the number of academic non-qualifiers by half for two years. Because of the seriousness of academic fraud, the NCAA accepted most of the self-imposed sanctions offered by the university but reduced the number of scholarships by five rather than two for a period of two years rather than one year.
Many of these issues involve providing college athletes with special favors. For decades a pressing issue has been one of paying college athletes. There are various rules that must be followed to avoid the appearance of paying college athletes or providing them with special treatment. At Ohio State University, student athletes disobeyed the rules by trading athletic equipment for tattoos. The main argument against athletes receiving compensation is that if the players were paid, then college sports would lose its appeal. In 2013-14 the courts will make a decision about whether a lawsuit arguing that players be compensated for use of their likeness goes forward. However, the major issue still remains over whether student athletes be paid a salary or reimbursed for expenses caused by sports-related activities and medical care. The integrity of the NCAA and collegiate athletics depends on transparency and a level playing field. The NCAA and universities are mindful that most collegiate athletes do not enter professional sports and will have to find a career outside of athletics. Therefore, any attempt to treat collegiate athletics like professional sports could be detrimental. The goal of all stakeholders should be to help young men and women develop the ability to have a career and contribute to society.

CONCLUSION

The NCAA strives to prevent unethical behavior in collegiate athletics by objectively set- ting and enforcing standards of conduct. They also encourage and help universities establish their own system of compliance and control, since the ultimate responsibility lies with the universities and the cultures they create. Even when colleges impose sanctions on their football programs, the NCAA examines the sanctions objectively and either accepts the sanctions as sufficient or supplements them with more penalties that better match the misconduct. This should not discourage universities from self-reporting, however. While there is no guarantee a football program will not be penalized for reporting misconduct or adopting self-imposed sanctions, the more proactive a football program appears to be, the more consideration it may receive when the NCAA examines the situation. Additionally, a proactive ethical culture creates a reputation for ethics and compliance that may help the program bounce back quicker after a misconduct incident. The NCAA stands as a compliance-oriented organization. At the same time, it pro- motes certain values the universities should adopt when developing sports programs. The NCAA rules should not be accepted as totally sufficient but used as a minimum benchmark for ethical conduct. NCAA guidelines serve as a framework for how collegiate sports pro- grams should behave and offers consequences for non-compliance. Universities involved in both minor and major violations have come to realize the importance of emphasizing ethics and compliance in their sports programs.

The Articles of Confederation vs. the Constitution Paper

The Articles of Confederation vs. the Constitution Paper

Order Description

Discuss at least three ways in which the Constitution is different from the Articles of Confederation. Why would the Founders make these changes? How do these changes reveal the lessons they had learned from the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? Be sure to use specific examples from the articles.

The Articles of Confederation vs. the Constitution Paper: Due September 18

It is often easy to believe that early Americans declared and won their independence and then immediately created the perfect government under the Federal Constitution.  Yet as we have learned, Americans initially struggled to create the ideal government that could balance liberty and order.  The Articles of Confederation, although a clear reflection of Americans’ love of liberty, failed to meet the demands of a young nation.  The Founding Fathers, equipped with many valuable lessons, went back to the drawing board to devise a more effective and lasting government.  Their efforts bore the Federal Constitution.  Although the Constitution is far superior to the Articles of Confederation, many historians (including the brilliant Dr. Brown) believe that the Constitution would not have been possible without the Articles of Confederation.  It was only through the failings and weaknesses of the Articles, did the Founders truly understand and appreciate that a stronger central government was vital to the young nation.  In this paper you will be assessing the differences between these two founding documents and how the Articles ultimately shaped the Constitution.  After reading the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution, please answer the following questions.

Question:  Discuss at least three ways in which the Constitution is different from the Articles of Confederation.  Why would the Founders make these changes?  How do these changes reveal the lessons they had learned from the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?  Be sure to use specific examples from the documents.

Directions:
-Please do not exceed three pages!
-Be sure to read over and use Paper Guidelines [Moodle/Assignment]
-You may cite your paper simply by indicating the Section and Article number in the document in parentheses.
-Example: (Articles, Section 3, Article III)
-Example: (Constitution, Section 5, Article I)
–If your paper contains no citations than you have plagiarized.  Even when paraphrasing you must cite your work!!

Articles of Confederation
To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names send greeting.
Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.
I.
The Stile of this Confederacy shall be
“The United States of America”.
II.
Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.
III.
The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.
IV.
The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different States in this Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several States; and the people of each State shall free ingress and regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions, and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any State, to any other State, of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any State, on the property of the United States, or either of them.
If any person guilty of, or charged with, treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon demand of the Governor or executive power of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State having jurisdiction of his offense.
Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these States to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other State.
V.
For the most convenient management of the general interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed in such manner as the legislatures of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a powerreserved to each State to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead for the remainder of the year.
No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees or emolument of any kind.
Each State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the committee of the States.
In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each State shall have one vote.
Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests or imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendence on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
VI.
No State, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance or treaty with any King, Prince or State; nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, or any of them, accept any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever from any King, Prince or foreign State; nor shall the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.
No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.
No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any King, Prince or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain.
No vessel of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State, except such number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the United States in Congress assembled, for the defense of such State, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any State in time of peace, except such number only, as in the judgement of the United States in Congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defense of such State; but every State shall always keep up a well-regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutered, and shall provide and constantly have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of filed pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp equipage.
No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such State, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit of a delay till the United States in Congress assembled can be consulted; nor shall any State grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United States in Congress assembled, and then only against the Kingdom or State and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the United States in Congress assembled shall determine otherwise.
VII.
When land forces are raised by any State for the common defense, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each State respectively, by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such State shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the State which first made the appointment.
VIII.
All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defense or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several States in proportion to the value of all land within each State, granted or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated according to such mode as the United States in Congress assembled, shall from time to time direct and appoint.
The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several States within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled.
IX.
The United States in Congress assembled, shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article — of sending and receiving ambassadors — entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce shall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective States shall be restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners, as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever — of establishing rules for deciding in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United States shall be divided or appropriated — of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace — appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies commited on the high seas and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of captures, provided that no member of Congress shall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.
The United States in Congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more States concerning boundary, jurisdiction or any other causes whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following. Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent of any State in controversy with another shall present a petition to Congress stating the matter in question and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of Congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other State in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint by joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question: but if they cannot agree, Congress shall name three persons out of each of the United States, and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less than seven, nor more than nine names as Congress shall direct, shall in the presence of Congress be drawn out by lot, and the persons whose names shall be so drawn or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination: and if either party shall neglect to attend at the day appointed, without showing reasons, which Congress shall judge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the Congress shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each State, and the secretary of Congress shall strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing; and the judgement and sentence of the court to be appointed, in the manner before prescribed, shall be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence, or judgement, which shall in like manner be final and decisive, the judgement or sentence and other proceedings being in either case transmitted to Congress, and lodged among the acts of Congress for the security of the parties concerned: provided that every commissioner, before he sits in judgement, shall take an oath to be administered by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the State, where the cause shall be tried, ‘well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according to the best of his judgement, without favor, affection or hope of reward’: provided also, that no State shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the United States.
All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed under different grants of two or more States, whose jurisdictions as they may respect such lands, and the States which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the same time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the petition of either party to the Congress of the United States, be finally determined as near as may be in the same manner as is before presecribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different States.
The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective States — fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States — regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the States, provided that the legislative right of any State within its own limits be not infringed or violated — establishing or regulating post offices from one State to another, throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said office — appointing all officers of the land forces, in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers — appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the United States — making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.
The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority to appoint a committee, to sit in the recess of Congress, to be denominated ‘A Committee of the States’, and to consist of one delegate from each State; and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the United States under their direction — to appoint one of their members to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expenses — to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmitting every half-year to the respective States an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted — to build and equip a navy — to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each State for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such State; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each State shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men and cloath, arm and equip them in a solid-like manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and men so cloathed, armed and equipped shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled. But if the United States in Congress assembled shall, on consideration of circumstances judge proper that any State should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, cloathed, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of each State, unless the legislature of such State shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spread out in the same, in which case they shall raise, officer, cloath, arm and equip as many of such extra number as they judeg can be safely spared. And the officers and men so cloathed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.
The United States in Congress assembled shall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque or reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defense and welfare of the United States, or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war, to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine States assent to the same: nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of the majority of the United States in Congress assembled.
The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgement require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each State on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several States.
X.
The Committee of the States, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress assembled, by the consent of the nine States, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated to the said Committee, for the exercise of which, by the Articles of Confederation, the voice of nine States in the Congress of the United States assembled be requisite.
XI.
Canada acceding to this confederation, and adjoining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this Union; but no other colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine States.
XII.
All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed, and debts contracted by, or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States, and the public faith are hereby solemnly pleged.
XIII.
Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. And the Articles of this Confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislatures of every State.
And Whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union. Know Ye that we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained: And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said Confederation are submitted to them. And that the Articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we respectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual.
In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-Eight, and in the Third Year of the independence of America.
On the part and behalf of the State of New Hampshire:
Josiah Bartlett
John Wentworth Junr. August 8th 1778
On the part and behalf of The State of Massachusetts Bay:
John Hancock
Samuel Adams
Elbridge Gerry
Francis Dana
James Lovell
Samuel Holten
On the part and behalf of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations:
William Ellery
Henry Marchant
John Collins
On the part and behalf of the State of Connecticut:
Roger Sherman
Samuel Huntington
Oliver Wolcott
Titus Hosmer
Andrew Adams
On the Part and Behalf of the State of New York:
James Duane
Francis Lewis
Wm Duer
Gouv Morris
On the Part and in Behalf of the State of New Jersey, November 26, 1778.
Jno Witherspoon
Nath. Scudder
On the part and behalf of the State of Pennsylvania:
Robt Morris
Daniel Roberdeau
John Bayard Smith
William Clingan
Joseph Reed 22nd July 1778
On the part and behalf of the State of Delaware:
Tho Mckean February 12, 1779
John Dickinson May 5th 1779
Nicholas Van Dyke
On the part and behalf of the State of Maryland:
John Hanson March 1 1781
Daniel Carroll
On the Part and Behalf of the State of Virginia:
Richard Henry Lee
John Banister
Thomas Adams
Jno Harvie
Francis Lightfoot Lee
On the part and Behalf of the State of No Carolina:
John Penn July 21st 1778
Corns Harnett
Jno Williams
On the part and behalf of the State of South Carolina:
Henry Laurens
William Henry Drayton
Jno Mathews
Richd Hutson
Thos Heyward Junr
On the part and behalf of the State of Georgia:
Jno Walton 24th July 1778
Edwd Telfair
Edwd Langworthy

Reflection;explain how you see yourself fitting into the following IOM Future of Nursing recommendations

Reflection;explain how you see yourself fitting into the following IOM Future of Nursing recommendations

Order Description

In a reflection of 450 words, explain how you see yourself fitting into the following IOM Future of Nursing recommendations:
1.Recommendation 4: Increase the proportion of nurses with a baccalaureate degree to 80% by 2020.
2.Recommendation 5: Double the number of nurses with a doctorate by 2020.
3.Recommendation 6: Ensure that nurses engage in lifelong learning.

Identify your options in the job market based on your educational level.
1.How will increasing your level of education affect how you compete in the current job market?
2.How will increasing your level of education affect your role in the future of nursing?

While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Movie; Children of Heaven

Movie; Children of Heaven

Write an analysis of PLANNING or related issues. Your content grade will be based on your assessment of aspects of planning or related points put forth in the movie. DO NOT write a summary – assume the reader has seen the movie. Remember your analysis of the movie needs to be on PLANNING or related issues like race, society, family, or other aspects dealt within the movie that directly or indirectly affect planning. You may use examples from the movie to support your analysis. Be sure to check your past papers for grammar issues to be resolved. We grade harder on grammar with each paper so you need to improve to keep the same grammar grade. See the Writing Guidelines we have posted in the Course Documents section of blackboard. As usual, the paper should be 3-4 pages double spaced, font size 12. Make sure to include a class reading!!

This is a movie that deals with two different cultures, urban and rural.  You will note the differences are too strong and should be able to compare the two with your own cultural experience here. There are several planning issues we may consider when watching this wonderful film. They are: ??
1) Family values, ties and social network ?
2) Urban isolation among some family members, particularly for young children
3) Physical setting between poor and rich neighborhoods ?
4) Consequences of urban environment (urbanization) in a city (noise and air pollution, for example) ?
5) Slum environment and family survival including coping mechanism?
6) Attitudes and cultural differences between haves and have-nots ?
7) Use of alleys and existing neighborhood conditions for daily activities?
8) No uniform zoning in the city ?
9) Building design (globalization)

The steps that I want you to follow on writing this paper:
1. Think of a position on a major planning or related issue you would like to analyze for the movie.
2. Think of 2-4 statements that support your position.
3. In your intro paragraph, clearly state your position (identified in #1) and briefly mention your supporting statements (#2).
4. Each paragraph after your intro should be dedicated to explaining ONE of your supporting statements. You may use specific examples from the movie to provide further support and evidence.
5. Write a concluding paragraph that essentially wraps up your position, and ideally provides sheds sort of new light based on the arguments provided in the body of the paper.
6. Make sure to include a class reading (I will uploaded two of the class readings to you). Also, add two more sources from the Internet to support this paper.
7. Include a reference paper. (I will upload them).

Please do not summarize the movie.
The link of the Movie:https://vimeo.com/57122883

three small feedback revisions

three small feedback revisions

Order Description

review and create 3 summaries about our thoughts about each videos

Purdue OWL: Memo Writing Part 1
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmblkD_PaYU

Purdue OWL: Memo Writing Part 2
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jflXIR2CbjY

Purdue OWL: Memo Writing Part 3
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ehIHi8ja3g8

Critical Review of the Strong Interest Inventory test instrument

Critical Review of the Strong Interest Inventory test instrument

Order Description

The purpose of Assignment # 2 is to assess the following outcomes of your learning:
? understanding of fundamental concepts, frameworks, and theories in psychological assessment, including the nature and uses of psychological assessment, social and ethical issues, and central dimensions of individual differences;
? ability to critically reflect on, and dispute, claims relating to published tests, including those by the test author/publisher and critics;
? logical argumentation skills;
? familiarity with basic technical terms in the assessment/testing area;
? skill in searching psychological literature; retrieving, quoting, citing, and
referencing items from relevant publications;
? skills of summarising information found in scholarly literature and generating
novel insights;
? skills of academic writing at the senior undergraduate level, including
organisation and formatting of a brief paper.

What should my test review contain?
In formulating your critical evaluation and structuring your assignment, ‘An Outline for Test Evaluation’ (OTE; adapted after Anne Anastasi.

An Outline for Test Evaluation (OTE)
[adapted after:
Anastasi, A., Psychological testing (Sixth edition). Appendix B.]
Before you start:
? The outline contains basic features which are applicable to most tests.
? Additional features are noteworthy in the case of particular tests.
? A good preparation for writing a test critique may include a thorough reading of
the APA/AERA/NCME ‘Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing’, and a sample of test critiques in the ‘Mental Measurement Yearbooks’.
SECTION A General information
i. Title of test (including edition and forms if applicable)
ii. Author(s) of the test
iii. Publisher, year of publication (including publication year of manuals, norms,
and supplementary materials; especially important for tests whose content or
norms may become outdated)
iv. Time required to administer (in minutes)
v. Cost
SECTION B
Brief description of the purpose and nature of the test
i. General type (e.g., individual or group, performance, multiple aptitude battery, interest inventory, and so on)
ii. Population for which the test is designed (age rang, type of person)
iii. Nature of test content (e.g., verbal, numerical, spatial, motor)
iv. Sub-tests and separate scores
v. Item types
SECTION C Practical evaluation
Qualitative features of test materials (e. g., design of test booklet, editorial quality of content, ease of using, attractiveness, durability, appropriateness for test takers)
Ease of administration, including facilities for computer- assisted administration
Clarity of directions
iv. Scoring procedures, including automated scoring services and available
software
Examiner qualifications and training required

SECTION D Technical evaluation
i. Norms
? Type (e.g., percentiles, standard scores)
? Standardisation sample (nature, size, representativeness, procedures
followed in sampling, availability of subgroup norms – for age-, gender-, education-, occupation-, region-based subgroups)
ii. Reliability
? Types and procedures (e.g., test retest, parallel forms, split-half, Kuder-
Richardson or coefficient ), including size and nature of samples
employed
? Scorer reliability (if applicable)
? Equivalence of forms
? Long-term stability (when available)
iii. Validity
? Appropriate types of validation procedures (e.g., content-related, criterion-
related <predictive or concurrent>, construct-related)
? Specific procedures followed in assessing validity, and results gained
? Size and nature of samples employed
SECTION E Reviewers’ Comments
Published in ‘Mental Measurement Yearbooks’ or elsewhere
SECTION F Summary Evaluation

Major strengths and weaknesses of the test, cutting across all sections of the outline (test critique)
Which elements are indispensable?

The points in sections A (‘General information’) and B (‘Brief description’) of OTE are obligatory. You may address some of them concisely, and others in more detail, but please include information on all 10 points in your review. Note that without exactly identifying which test you are criticising, your critique will become meaningless and your assignment cannot be assessed at all.

It is strongly recommended that you elaborate on at least one point from Section C, and two points of D, in OTE. For instance, a good review may criticise Test X in detail as regards clarity of directions, and as regards validity and reliability. Alternatively, an assignment can contain criticisms regarding ease of administration, reliability, and norms. There are other combinations, but please remember: one from C, two from D.
You may consider that:
? each instrument can be viewed from a theoretical and an applied perspective. Applied perspectives include those of the clinician, the occupational psychologist, the business psychologist, or a professional working in the armed forces;
? each instrument can be discussed with a universal focus, concentrating on questions which are central to testing in any human culture; or an intercultural focus, which attends to peculiarities of particular regions and cultures and compares them; or a local focus;
? many instruments can be approached from an “average adult testee” perspective, disregarding age differences, or from a specific developmental perspective, highlighting the issues in testing a particular age group or groups.
Background material
You can rely on the vast psychometric literature when writing your essays. A minimum of 4 publications (other than your textbook) must be cited. In most cases a more profound literature search leads to a better quality essay; those using at least 10 items in the literature will be preferred and rated higher.

Criteria used in evaluating Assignment #2
i. When marking your assignment, the marker will primarily look for evidence of the skills and understanding listed under the heading ‘What does this assignment assess’. The points below pertain to additional elements often found in good assignments, and explain our evaluative views on them.
ii. Originality
Original insights which are relevant to the topic, but do not seem to have any direct association with ideas and results published in literature, will be greatly appreciated.
iii. Sound critical judgement and argumentation
Major critical statements should be corroborated by at least a few conceptual, theoretical or empirical/ practical arguments. The logical soundness and cohesion of these passages has weight in evaluation. Innovative criticism especially invites corroborating argument. Moderation and defensible refutation are more convincing than extremism and critique ad hominem. If you summarise criticism published by other authors you may wish to quote specific arguments underlying the criticism, rather than the critical assertions alone.
iv. Personal experience reviewed
Experience, gathered either from practice using the measuring instrument criticised (or closely related instruments), or learned from other practitioners may be included in the critique. Such a section will be welcomed if written up in a way connecting it to other parts of the critique which may provide a frame of reference and reflection. Please separate statements cited from literature versus personal experience.
v. Outlook
Assignments which evidence that the author has an informed outlook (ie., a wider conspectus regarding the set of problems to which the one specifically treated belongs, or the set of concepts from which one is taken as a particular target of analysis) will be highly evaluated.